Location & Size
HISTORY, LOCATION AND SIZE
Bugiri district was formed out of Bukooli County that once comprised Iganga district and granted District status in 1997. Arguments for its creation were based on decentralization of service delivery in Uganda. Bugiri is one of the districts in the Eastern region of Uganda. It is bordered by Namutumba district and Butaleja in the North, Tororo in the North East, Iganga in the west, Mayuge in the South West, and Busia District in the east. It lies between longitudes 33 Degrees 10 minutes East and 34 degrees 0 minutes East and latitudes 0 degrees 06 minutes north and 1 degree 12 minutes North.
The district is 152 km away from the capital city Kampala. The district headquarters are located in Bugiri Town Council at the former Bukooli County Headquarters.
The land is generally characterized by Gentle Undulating Hills with few higher Residual features. A narrow and generally higher accentuated Relief to the south forms a Water Shed between Lake Victoria drainage and Northern Drainage. The major swamps are Igogero and Kibimba. The major hills are Irimbi, Bululu and Namakoko
Bugiri district has a mean annual rainfall of 1200mm in the wetter south and 900 mm in the drier northwest. Within the wetter south precipitation varies. The southern parts of the district receive between 1,000mm to 1,500mm of rainfall per year. The northern part is relatively drier with an average of 650mm while the northwest is drier with a precipitation between 500mm and 450mm. In general, there are two peak rainfall seasons in a year, that is, from April to June and from August to November. The two are punctuated by a dry season from December to March. Rainfall is important to the life of the people of the district as they depend on rain fed agriculture, its timing and intensity creates an impact on the agricultural productivity in district, however rainfall is no longer reliable and difficult to predict making it difficult for farmers to plan for the agricultural seasons properly. The temperatures range of 16.7 to 28.1 with the month of being the hottest. The average wind speed is 4.4 km/hr, mainly blowing towards the north during March.
The soils covering most of the district are mainly loamy and sand loams. These soils have fine textile with rather loose structure, which are easily eroded and leached. Most soils are acidic. Soil types in the district include:
Yellow - red sandy, clay loams soils varying from dark grey to dark which are slightly acidic and mainly derived from granite, gneissic and sedimentary rocks. They occur on gently undulating - hilly topography.
Brown - yellow clay loams with laterite horizon with a variety of dark brown to dark greyish brown, which are slightly acidic. These occur on flat ridge tops or as of undulating topography.
Light - grey- white mottled loamy soils with laterite horizon ground, structure-less loamy sands. They are acidic - allocative and mainly found on the lower and bottom slopes.
The District has a total area of 2,629 Sq.Km, of which 1,062 is dry land and the rest therefore is covered by water bodies. The land surface is characterized by gentle undulating hills with few higher residual features. A narrow and generally higher accentuated relief to the south forms a watershed between Lake Victoria drainage and the northern drainage.
Most of the land in the district is under unregistered customary ownership with an increasing number of leaseholds and freeholds in the Town council, Kapyanga and Bulesa sub counties. The main land use is agriculture, but the use depends on ownership, tenure, and customs. Tenure arrangement is associated with several pressures including; overgrazing, bush burning and land fragmentation. These pressures tend to limit the sustainable utilization of the land resource and instead lead to over exploitation.
The vegetation of the district like the rest of Uganda has suffered from pressure created by the rapid growth in population and demand for fuel, timber, farmland, and space for settlement and agriculture. It is predominantly forest/savannah mosaics, with a mixture of isolated forest remnants and colonizing savannah trees integrated with grasses and shrubs. The vegetation in the district has minor variation.
Population and Area Analysis
Bugiri District has a Total Area 1,607 sq. km with about 962 sq. km of land and the rest 735 sq. km being water shade.
As per the 2014 Uganda National Housing and Population Census provisional results, Bugiri District Populations stands at a total of 390,076 persons of which 188,462 are males and 201,614 are females. These occupy 75,921 households on an average of 5.1 per household in the District in both rural and urban areas, notably 29,013 urbanites and 361,063 are ruralities.